SCOoPE 09 – Efficient generation of steam and hot water in food industry
SCOoPE 09 – Efficient generation of steam and hot water in food industry


[Music] welcome to chapter 9 of the webinar series developed by the school project saving comparative energy the title of this webinar is efficient generation of steam and hot water in food industry I am Arianna Nene and this video has been produced thanks to a joint work of some colleagues of the energy efficiency department of an app namely Germany Tanaka Albert honest really and Carol Alberto compute it in as an Italian partner of the school project it is a governmental research center and its name its acronym stands for the Italian national agency for new technologies energy and sustainable economic development here you can see a summary of the contents of this video in the first part of theory this has been taught as a technical guide and it will focus on steam systems hot water systems and process eating systems then there is the fat tool which contains the applications in food industry this second part is to guide you in the improvement of energy efficiency in such systems such as employers the hame here is to let decision makers and service and service providers through system changes more in details here we will talk about production processes in food industry that requires steam some of the most common equipment involved in these processes and lastly we will focus on efficient authorizers since pasteurization is a highly thermal energy consuming process let’s start our theoretical lesson beginning with the same systems in the food industry about 57% of fossil fuel consumption is to generate steam this data comes from a book from the hotel Bhangra of 2008 the steam is used to provide the space ether and process ether for cooking for concentrated liquid foods for drying and sterilizing and for generating mechanical power and electricity in some food processing facilities steam systems are very common in industrial manufacturing plants around the world a boiler a boiler is is a pressure vessel designed to transfer heat from a combustion process to a fluid usually steamer or or hot water different manufacturing industries at the major steam generation and the solution systems income one the following information and providing you all the proceeds from the book and title energy efficiency management in food processing facilities by EU one of 2008 treated called feed water is fed to the boiler where it resides the heat from sewer confucian and is heated to generate steam although the feed water is treated some impurities still remain in the treated water and can build up in the boilers therefore an amount of water is periodically drained from the button of the burner in a process which is called blowdown the generated steam is delivered around pipes of a steam distribution system to reach the processes where the heat is then used when the steam passes through the pipes Heelys from the steam occurs and some of the steam makaan dance a spin chopper which Arlo’s condensate to pass through but blocks the passage of steam is usually used to remove condensate from steam the condensate can be recirculated to the boiler for the car is soft for recovering some heat and reducing the need for fresh threaded feed water if the process requires the pressures EEMA they high-pressure steam from the boiler is passed through a pressure reduction valve a boiler a burner is a typical steam generation system it is used to change the energy in the fuel usually fuel usually is a fossil fuel which is converted into steam two main different butter designs exist the fire to burn boiler design is the one shown in this slide and the water to design whatever the design is a polarizer is of this confidence the common components which are a burner choose chambers between chips and flu in his slide the figure shows the typical flow path for the combustion gases and the likely temperature in a kamana firetube boiler installations in these boilers the combustion gases from the burner flow through the inside of the tubes with the water that will be born to steel on the outside of the tubes water-tube boilers are often used in large boiler applications such as power station and and large industries this is because the smaller diameter of the water chooser and lows highest in precious to be generated such as those recover those kind of pressures which are required for power generation using for example steam turbines most boilers are also an economizer water treatment and some Environmental Protection and salaries with the flue fuel and air are mixed them and bolter in a corner in order to release their eat the kind of burner depends on depends on fuel in a firetube boiler the flame from the burning of fuel flows inside the tubes they heat from the flame transfers to other surrounded outside the tubes in a water to boiler let’s pass through to the next slide the flu is the stuff that carries of combustion products come on website and access a too much pool and there will be incomplete combustion and increase the harmful emissions an economizer is a heat exchanger used to recover some of the heat from the flue gas for increasing the temperature make up water to the boiler however the stack temperature is usually kept above 150 degree centigrades in our Detroit condensation of gases which can produce acids inside the stack and then damage to stock environment of protection equipment such as scrubbers and to static precipitators cyclone separators and filters may want to be used to treat the flue gas depending on the power design of course on the foreland or their other regulations one are a steamer water through drew across piping system they may picked up some dissolved solids which degrade efficiency and and also the operation of the boiler the dissolve solids eventually becomes larger and set around the bottom of the boiler which decreases the heat transfer capability which decreasing so that the heat transfer capabilities array of the boiler and causes significant significant damage to to the boiler now the amount of dissolved solids may also lead to forming and carry liquid water into the stream causing the water hammer phenomenon to reduce the concentration of such solids certain amount of water is removed from the boiler frequently which is called blowdown the heart broke down can be used to heat the bottle water there are two types of blow down button and surface but Pablo de uno is a manual process to remove the dissolved solids that have accumulated the on the bottom of the boiler the procedure is performed at regular intervals according to the type of boiler and steam and water usage different leader the surface go down on zonal a stop blow down for difference with a bottom blowdown remove solids that are floating on or near the surface of the water in the boiler water treatment unit is also required to control the acidity and to remove dissolved gases such as air in the boiler water before the water enters the boiler all dissolved gases must be removed to minimize corrosion removing the dissolved oxygen from boiler feed from below feed water is a is absolutely necessary to protect the boiler equipment that could be subjected to a severe corrosion in fact the makeup water necessary in an embalmer system the name itself contains dissolved oxygen and oxygen can sometimes enter condensing systems as well a good theater is essential to trouble-free border operation the aerators can use an atmospheric tank or a paradise tank the main difference between an atmospheric there later and the pressurized one is the type of Sigma regulator used to depend on the steam regulator atmospheric units have the temperature regulator while differently pressurize the units have a pressure regulator temperature regulators are not as responsive as pressure and letters one advantage of pressurized tank is that the condensate can be returned at a higher pressure and temperature which reduces the amount of energy needed by the ball and pora for the steam generation the higher temperature also reduces the amount of these sub gases in the water when a pressurized tank is used the the aeration take place into two stages in two stages the first stage is as sprite absently the second stage will use either an atomizer aura or tracer atomizer or sprite right narrators use a high velocity stream jak to moved up to remove gasses sorry tre type the aerators use the agitation created by spilling the water over several socket plates usually around jeana standard factor now now I’m going to talk to you about the fuel cell which are generally use the boilers so popular few words use the borders are natural gas who are I and for some organic processing waste is some biomass can also be used as fuel in a boiler of course however a burner is almost designed for a particular specific sewer in a boiler there the need for a ratio is optimal what the amount when the amount of a level leaves me the fuel this leader too low or later to 5 if they’re the mixture a fool doesn’t have enough ADA enough oxygen mister incomplete from use death occurs on the other hand if the mixture era floor as too much hair the condition efficiency decreases sir because part of the energy that could be used to heat the water in the boiler was dead the he used to is used to heat the excess air they were impossible to splice the presents volume of area needed the complete combustion it is generally recommended that a small amount of excess oil should be available to the boiler the amount of excess area depends on if you are use them the advantages and the disadvantages of it as a few answer are given in the table you can see here in front of you even affluence of a different hydrogen content and when a fool is born the hydrogen becomes water which is released as part of the flue gas since the temperature of food as is higher than the boiling point of water energy is lost to the steam in the flue gas therefore the higher the drogyn content of the pool the more energy is lost them to the flue gas via steam when serving now concerning an energy analysis for a steam generation system all matter is conserved in boiler first the total mass of fool who’s a entering the system is the same as the total mass of gas exit and stop second individual atomic species such as carbon of the journey draw Jana they are conserved although the energy stored in the fuels changed from one phone to another energy is conservative this means energies need arasta or destroyed the termination of boiler efficiency is largely a matter of careful energy counting based on the principle of energy conservation the heat content or handle Fierstein includes two powers Latin heat which is required to vaporize water into steam and Sam small heater which is required to increase the feed water temperature to the water boiling point and also to increase the steam temperature in the cases when steam is superheated for such a little steamer distinct temperature is directly related to expression the ball and sufficiency defines the ratio or useful heat in the product stream to the energy content of the food the efficiency can be determined by measuring the flow and so Madonna an thermodynamic properties of the internal fuel and they are going to that divine efficiency you can call it theta B is the result of the product of two continents the combustion efficiency of fuels here we call it Etta C and the heat exchanger efficiency that here we call at the age so you can see that at a B is Etta C for pair atopy sorry Etta H the combustion efficiency reflects the stand to which the energy content of a pool is from where to tweet in the community and asks which is usually close to 100% the efficiency of heat exchangers represents the fraction of it different depth fraction of the content in the combustion gas that it is actually transferred to the steam and which is usually the 7080 percent for an industrial boiler C is C in 2008 reports that the efficiency of a 747 kilowatt a final truth without economizer using a food processing facilities about 86 percent to determine the relative operating efficiency and to establish a and and not that order to establish energy conservation benefits for an excess air control program the following information should be available the percent oxygen by voluma in the flue gas the spec temperature rise which is the difference between the flue gas temperature and the combustion air inlet temperature and finally under the the fuel type heat loss from from a boiler system the physical and chemical properties of fuel plays a significant role not on the efficiency of boilers they influence with the burner officials usually bar owners without gaseous or liquid fuels have the higher energy efficiency than those with solid three walls so burnin sweet gases are Likud at the higher efficiency than those wood solid foods because complete conversion of solid fuels requires a larger amount of excess aid then conditional solid towards this changes hot solid the refused but the design and operating parameters of ammonia also affect the performance of the boiler the energy loss Caesar I was in generation system or olive oil era could include the flue gas including the sensible e to the drive through Gaza one a never formed by the combustion of the drogyn if we worlds and the moisture if you are and in the compassion here incomplete from yourself minor blow the water cooling our heat transfer surface if convention herination loss from the hot water surface heathyr is lost from the stock fell through their hostile Gaza in the radiation of the hot stock surveys our training percent of the total ether is normally exhausted from the border through the stop without a waste heat recovery unit the energy loss from piazza increases with increase of excess air and depending on the fuel the temperature all living gases can be in the range of two hundred five degree centigrade to 325 degrees centigrade gum bush a completion efficiency curve is the same pollen is a useful method to determine the ball error conversion efficiency in the above-mentioned one book it is also a part in the death for the stack temperature rise or 260 degree centigrade and an excess oxygen are up two percent by volume in the Free Gaza excess air is about 10 percent and the condition efficiency is 80 1.4 percent now now let’s describe hot water systems and industrial hot water system generally consists of hot water generator this is sometimes called a hot water boiler which produces hot water at temperatures required by your process usually temperatures lower than 100 to give degree centigrades hot water pump up plus hot water to the plant to the pond to soldering the flu which extract the exhaust gas from the boiler pipey that carry having carries the hot water around plant in Sioux Nation sometimes it is also called the Lagrange which reduces heat loss from typing errors of other equipment then there are the process heating system process heating systems generally transfer energy from a fuel source to product there is an enormous range of agro-industry specific processes and other technologies that makes it impossible to consider all variants we are in a single be the chapter a typical process heating system is shown in the figure concede in the figure such a system should be powered by thermal energy in the form of fossil fuel or by electricity as a climbing the left part of the figure and see fuel or electricity the heat generation set the system hello’s the possessing the transformation the material which enter the system key component in a processes in systems era you can see the mister here you owner electricity supply a gas liner and president distribution system board the distribution board and generation equipment that can be a boiler of mass for mass dryer resistance and the heat transfer method the compaction neither humid convection the radiation through transfer is that the main the main known material handling system general is a fluid from via roller rocker heater and so on and heat recovery system which allows an exchange between exit gases and intake combustion air and exhaust emission exhaust emissions as a fullness as the fullness flow process heating systems can be classified in in a number of ways to such classifications are the the mode of operation and the heating me folder the mode of operation this thing is how the materials moved through the process it can be bad bad or it can be continuous but match a set amount of material it’s processed the town at time is a particular quantity or material before moving before moving on to a load the next batch in a start-stop fashion and then all the continuous mode of operation exist in which material moves through the process at constant rate it a stir continuously the heat emitted the is usually one of the following them it can be direct or indirect to direct it from conversion is applied directly to the material and therefore the condition lapses are encountered with material and open borders or heating elements are used the indirect heat emitted here the material is separated from combustion heat is transferred using gaseous or liquid and heat exchange take place with the material indirect heating equipment includes radiant burner tubes and cover the electrical heating elements the results a large range of energy sources that can be exploited in all these process heating systems such as fuels or easily stained and so on with all this information I will say that the first part of this webinar is for coding now let’s pass to the second part let’s go to the second part regarding the application in food industry process eating systems are generally transfer energy from a food source to a product an average with industry adopted several different processes and technologies as well based on heating systems very briefly as already said at the beginning the among the production processes that require schema there are there is the process heat for cooking concentration of liquid liquid foods drying sterilizing the generation of mechanical power and electricity in some food processing facilities and so on these are the the main the main production processes requiring that steam here we have the time to show only some food processing processing equipment that we stigma such as shelf femtube feeders which are formerly used to heat the floor we leak in the pipe on dancing from steamer or from the heat transfer medium the thing should be water supports the heating media from the product they needed in the case of a pump the heat transfer media media such as hot water steam is often used to hit the media in a separate exchanger steam injection heat Inga for food to Pradaxa is a direct contact process in which fuel in our esteem is mixed with the palpable food with an ingredient from a thermodynamics fun of you eating occurs when the steam transfer some of its eternal energy to the food product SEMA gives up all of its watt and heat olive oil of a polarization wife on dancing and depending upon depending upon their day this is some pressure somewhat sensible heat to since the steam direct telephone tax the food product and the tunnel exit we found becomes incorporated into it turn the steam source must be culinary to culinary sting typical steam injection unit units are are from factor inexpensive and also they are simply to control in the figure here you can see an example lot and the drawing gunner on the right side is a represents a section on the steam injection either steaming few genre is another method of the steam heating when the food products is in theater by the lacteal a low pressure and hardener a strength and cunning as steam saw him in practice it is also direct contact heating process its primary uses for gentle and rapid the heat eating of a variety of food ingredients and production including me cream captured per soups sauces and so on the steam infusion divides the usual incorporates a chamber what the products what the product is cascaded through a same environment collecting injection and traditional dust on the stinky Ginga the skimming fusion process surrounds the naked food product from with the steam has a post pressing cinema through the naked in the slide you can see a steam jacketed kettle it is on the colder air operating pan here the jacket used distribute steam over of wide surface area consists of a thin space from between two parallel metallic surfaces steam jacketed are typically used to hit both products alden tank and captain’s and then sistema has captured with you the jacket transferred heat delivered up to the product in the captain a layer insulation of the jacket protects operators and conserves heat then in the in addition a drum dryer when dryers another unit using process equipment it is a machine from the drying processes specifically generally dryers which is the one or more internal he’ll either and Makar metallic until himself Elisha 15 a uniform layer of what material is applied the figure shows some examples of G dryers dryers operate by applying a thin layer of the product to the drive to your side of of the living Sigma the drama is internal heated by stigma which quickly evaporates any liquid from the product after almost one full revolution the remaining material is removed from the drama by knife as a feeling more powder vilela do dryers artist and sibling used in the food and chemical industries for production of cereal days the breakfast products for Tata flakes powder the baby food and numerous chemical products Jun dryers are also often used in cereal drying now we have reached the very last part of this webinar this last part is dedicated to the process of pasteurization authorization is a controlled heating heating process it is used to eliminate the any dangerous pathogen that may be present me food based drinks asami products and other foods which are commonly subjected to mistreatment pasteurization that is most valuable the Jataka forms of microorganisms but not its resistance force how does first resin work you can see it in the picture at the top of the fly the typical pasteurizer is a completely automatic you terminate in one anda and it flows between a set of eating types of plates for a set period of time long enough to peeler to peel off most of you Humphry bacteria then between a set of old pipes before emerging from her now vilified in no Amazon award a typical pasteurizer is completely automatic so repudiating one antha and it flows between a set of eating pipes or plates for a set period of time long enough to kill off most of the harmful bacteria then between a set of cooling pipes before emerging from an outlet pipe into bottles heating and cooling times and temperature vary according to the type of pasteurization process used then there exist several types of food personalizes in the film industry is among the processes most thermal energy consumers for this reason a very important measure for energy efficiency and energy saving energy saving is TRADOC and efficient and energy saving pasteurizing for example a tuners fry pasteurizer features in low energy pasta and low water consumption priority the first priority of any channel pasteurizer is to make sure that pasteurization process is but for correctly and according to the precise specification of the users after the bottles are filled with the product content a’ as for example to Julius tomato concentrate something like that they are conveyed continuously and smoothly to the pasteurizer x’ then both of sparsely the temperature zones for protecting microorganisms will be killed under the feet spraying temperature and pasteurization v pasteurization time and this church temperature should be below 30 degrees centigrade faster as a unit temperature control system is on the assessor once you’re pasteurization process remains stable and the product concept its expect quality it respect for two central hits supply pasteurizer is the best choice for precise pasteurizer unit control high permittivity no net lower energy costs mean women tiny ants and clean Inga and although a shot escalation time an efficient pasteurizer can provide the significantly significant water saving and a significant energy saving Wow that is all for this chapter here you can find the details of the main references used to prepare this webinar in addition to those already reported that in the slide in the figures of this webinar thank you very much for your attention

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